文化作为社会变迁和人的财产的一个重要因素，长期以来一直受到学术界的研究和探讨。文化可以从定义、变化以及对生活和社会的影响等方面进行研究。在这篇文章中，目的是对一些与文化不同方面有关的文章进行批判性的比较。首先，为了提供逻辑思考和深入分析，将简要介绍文章的概要。接下来，本文将围绕这一主题做重要的阐述和比较，占整个论文的主要部分。此外，将通过比较显示几个方面。最后，在比较分析的基础上，有说服力的理由予以否定。 小结 在这一部分，对每一篇文章作了简要的总结。虽然每一篇文章都与文化有关，但每篇文章都有不同的文化重点。因此，总结的目的是指出文化的具体方面。首先，Raymond Williams（1965）着重分析了文化的定义。在这个问题上，他列举了三种流行的文化定义，包括“理想”、“纪录片”和“社会”定义。接着，他深入探讨了三种主要定义之间的关系。他声称文化研究实际上是研究生命中元素之间的关系。最后通过具体的分析和阐释，得出文化是由于元素之间的关系而产生的结论。其次，斯图亚特·霍尔（1998）关注大众文化，从历史的角度对大众文化的形成进行了长期的研究。从一开始，他提到了流行文化，这是关系到社会结构变化的周期问题。然后，笔者具体论述了“流行”的定义，并从两个方面进行了分析，提出了自己的观点。最后，他认为大众文化与反对权力集团的人有联系。第三，文化战争中的Geertz Clifford（1995）从人类学和历史的角度看待文化，以Cook船长的传说为例。文化战争最终是由冲突的思想和信仰产生的。此外，他主张从解释人类学的视角看文化，而不只是做描述性的解释。文化真正重要的是社会的形式，它是文化的实质（克利福德，1973）。 关键的比较 在这一部分中，重点从三个方面对研究对象、研究方法、研究方法、研究材料、最终观点等进行了批判性的比较。通过这种过程，同样的异同也会得到令人信服的解释。首先，在研究目标上，每个作者都有自己独特的文化重点。威廉姆斯在“文化分析”中主要侧重于文化的界定。基于三个普遍接受的定义，作者试图探索和发现三者间的关系（威廉姆斯，1965，p57）。
Culture as a vital factor to social change and property to human has long been studied and discussed in academic circle. Culture can be studied from different aspects like definition, variety and influences on life and society. In this essay, it aims to make a critical comparison of several articles related to different aspects of culture. First of all, in order to provide a logical thinking and make an in-depth analysis, brief summaries of articles will be presented. Following this, the essay will focus on the topic to do critical explication and comparison, which accounts for main parts of the whole essay. Moreover there will be several aspects displayed through the comparison. Finally based on the comparison and analysis, some judgments would be nailed down with convincing reasons. Brief Summary In this part, it presents a brief summary of each article. Though each article is relevant to culture, there is a different emphasis on culture in each article. So the purpose of making summaries is to point out the specific aspect of culture. First of all, Raymond Williams (1965) focused on the analysis of definition of culture. In terms of this issue, he listed three popular definitions of culture including the “ideal”, “documentary” and “social” definition. Following this, he explored in depth to discuss the relations among the three main kinds of definitions. And he claimed that the study of culture actually is the study of relationships between elements in life. Finally by specific analysis and interpretation, he concluded that the culture emerges due to relations between elements. Secondly, Stuart Hall (1998) payed attention to the popular culture and studied its formation chronically from historical view. From the beginning, he mentioned the problem of periodisation of popular culture which is in relation to social structure change. Then the author specifically focuses on the definition of “popular” and analyzes it from two points and put forward its own point. And eventually he thought that the popular culture is linked to the people who versus to the power bloc. Thirdly, Geertz Clifford (1995) in culture war looked at culture from anthropological and historical aspect by taking the legend of Captain Cook as an example. And culture war was eventually generated by conflicted ideas and beliefs. In addition, he advocated to view culture from the interpretive anthropological view, and not just to do descriptive explication. The really important for culture is the society’s form, which is the substance of culture (Clifford, 1973). Critical Comparison In this section, it will place emphasis on making critical comparison among the three author’s ideas or proposals on culture from several aspects including research objectives, methods, styles, supporting materials and final opinions. Through this kind of process, similarities and differences also will be presented with a convincing interpretation. First of all, in terms of the research objectives, each author has his own specific and emphasizing point on culture. Williams in “The analysis of culture” mainly focused on how to define culture. And based on three generally accepted definitions, the author tried to explore and discover the relations among the three (Williams, 1965, p57).
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